1989-93, Director, Policy Planning, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France; Ambassador to Western European Union; Chairman, French Institute of Higher Defence Studies. 2000-08, Undersecretary-General, United Nations: longest tenure as head; led biggest expansion of peacekeeping. 2012, Deputy Joint Special Envoy to Syria. Former Director, Center for International Conflict Resolution, Columbia University. 2014-2017, President and Chief Executive Officer, International Crisis Group. Since January 2018, Senior Adviser, Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue, Geneva. Member of the Board, Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Mediation, United Nations. Member of the board, SIPRI. Distinguished Fellow, Brookings Institution. Senior fellow, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs. Member, European Council on Foreign Relations. Author: End of the Nation State (1993); The Fog of Peace (2015). Recipient: Officier de la Légion d'Honneur; Commander's Cross, German Order of Merit.