1989, Master's and 1993, PhD in Economics, University of Berne. Post-doctoral research period at the Department of Economics, Harvard University. 1998, appointed Lecturer and, 2003, Honorary Professor, University of Berne. 1997, joined the Swiss National Bank (SNB) as Economic Adviser. 2004, appointed Alternate Member of the Governing Board and Head of the Financial Markets unit. 2007, appointed Member of the Governing Board and Head of Department III. From 2010, Vice-Chairman of the Governing Board and Head of Department II. April 2012, appointed Chairman of the Governing Board by the Federal Council and also Head of Department I. Member: Board of Directors, Bank for International Settlements (BIS), Basel; Steering Committee, Financial Stability Board (FSB). Chairman: G10 Central Bank Counterfeit Deterrence Group (CBCDG); International Center for Monetary and Banking Studies (ICMB), Geneva. Former Chairman of the Board of Directors, SNB's "StabFund", the stabilization fund, during its entire existence.